A Bibliography of Research Related
to Debris and Trash in Urban Runoff

Contents


Litter (strategies to reduce litter)

Bean, M.J. 1987. Legal strategies for reducing persistent plastics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B):357-360.

Bean, M.J. 1990. Redressing the problem of persistent marine debris through law and public policy: Opportunities and pitfalls. pp. 989-997. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Bruner, R.G. 1990. The plastics industry and marine debris: solutions through education. pp. 989-997. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

County of Los Angeles. Technical Report on Trash Best Management Practices. Department of Public Works, Watershed Management Division, Water Quality Section, August 5, 2004. 23 pp.

Donohue, M.J. 2003. How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(6):700-702.

Schert, J. 1995. The Florida Litter Study, Final report prepared for the Florida Legislator and Department of Environmental Quality, the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management.

Society of the Plastics Industry. 1990. Plastics and marine debris: Solutions through education. Publication No. AD-110. Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. Washington DC. 20 pp. 3rd ed.

Syrek, D. 1975. California Litter: A comprehensive Analysis and Plan for Abatement, The Institute for Applied Research, Sacramento, California.

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. Chapter 18, Reducing Marine Debris. pp. 211-217. In: Preliminary Report: Part V, Clear Waters Ahead: Coastal and Ocean Policy.

US EPA. 1990. Methods to manage and control plastic wastes. Report to Congress. EPA/530-SW-89-051. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

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Marine Debris (general information, composition, quantity & location)

Acha, E.M., et al. 2003. The role of the Rio de la Plata bottom salinity front in accumulating debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(2):197-202.

Aliani, S., Griffa, A., Molcard, A. 2003. Floating debris in the Ligurian Sea, north-western Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(9):1142-1149.

Baba, N., Kiyota, M. 1994. Distribution and characteristics of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean, 1989-1990. Poster abstracts and manuscripts from the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC 000, US Dep. of Comm., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA.

Bowman, D., Manor-Samsonov, N., Golik, A. 1998. Dynamics of litter pollution on Israeli Mediterranean beaches: a budgetary, litter flux approach. Journal of Coastal Research 14:418-432.

Cole, C.A., Kumer, J.P., Manski, D.A., Richards, D.V. 1990. Annual Report of National Park Marine Debris Monitoring Program: 1989 Marine Debris Survey. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Denver, CO Tech. Rep. NPS/NRWV/NRTR-90/04 pp. 31.

Corbin, C.J., Singh, J.G. 1993. Marine debris contamination of beaches in St. Lucia and Dominica. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26:325-328.

Cruz, G.A., Lopez, V., Sosa, C. 1990. Pollution by solid wastes carried by marine currents to the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Revista de Biologia Tropical 38(2A):339-342.

Dahlberg, M.L., Day, R.H. 1985. Observations of man-made objects on the surface of the North Pacific Ocean. pp. 387-429. In: R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris. November 27-29, 1984. Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54.

Debrot, A.O., Tiel, A.B., Bradshaw, J.E. 1999. Beach debris in Curacao. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(9):795-801.

Dixon, T.R., Dixon, T.J. 1981. Marine litter surveillance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 12:289-295.

Dixon, T.R., Cooke, A.J. 1977. Discarded containers on a Kent Beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 8:105-109.

Evans, S.M., et al. 1995. Domestic waste and TBT pollution in coastal areas of Ambon Island (eastern Indonesia). Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:109-115.

Frost, A., Cullen, M. 1997. Marine debris on northern New South Wales beaches (Australia): sources and the role of beach usage. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(5):348-352.

Fujieda, S. 1999. Beach litters on the Kagoshima coast. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, pp. 11-17.

Gabrielides, G.P., et al. 1991. Man-made garbage pollution on the Mediterranean coastline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:437-441.

Galgani, F., et al. 1995a. Distribution and abundance of debris on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay and in Seine Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:58-62.

Galgani, F., et al. 1995b. Distribution and abundance of debris on the continental shelf of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30(11):713-717.

Galgani, F., et al. 2000. Litter on the sea floor along European coasts. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(6):516-527.

Galil, B.S., Golik, A., Turkay, M. 1995. Litter at the bottom of the sea: a sea bed survey in the Eastern Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:22-24.

Garrity, S.D., Levings, S.C. 1993. Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26:317-324.

Golik, A. 1997. Debris in the Mediterranean Sea: types, quantities, and behavior. pp. 7-14. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

Golik, A., Gertner, Y. 1992. Litter on the Israeli coastline. Marine Environmental Research 33:1-15.

Haynes, D. 1997. Marine debris on continental islands and sand cays in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(4):276-279.

Hess, N.A., Ribic, C.A., Vining, I. 1999. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(10):885-890.

Ingraham Jr., W.J. 2001. Surface current concentration of floating marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean: 12-year OSCURS Model Experiment. Honolulu Marine Debris Conference 2001.

Interagency Task Force. 1988. Report of the Interagency Task Force on Persistent Marine Debris. Chair, Interagency Task Force, Department of Commerce, NOAA, Washington DC. 170 pp.

Jones, M.M. 1995. Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:25-33.

June, J.A. 1990. Type, source, and abundance of trawl-caught marine debris off Oregon, in the eastern Bering Sea, and in Norton Sound in 1988. pp. 279-301. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Kusui, T., Noda, M. 2003. International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47:175-179.

Lecke-Mitchell, K.M., Mullin, K. 1997. Floating marine debris in the US Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(9):702-705.

Lucas, Z. 1992. Monitoring persistent litter in the marine environment on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24:192-199.

Madzena, A., Lasiak, T. 1997. Spatial and temporal variations in beach litter on the Transkei Coast of South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(11):900-907.

Matsumura, S., Nasu, K. 1997. Distribution of floating debris in the North Pacific Ocean: Sighting surveys 1986-1991. pp. 15-24. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

McCoy, F. 1988. Floating megalitter in the eastern Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19:25-28.

Moore, S.L., Allen, M.J. 2000. Distribution of anthropogenic and natural debris on the mainland shelf of the Southern California Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(1):83-88.

Moore, S.L., Gregorio, D., Carreon, M., Leecaster, M.K., Weisberg, S.B. 2001. Composition and distribution of beach debris in Orange County, California. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(3):241-245.

Morrison, R.J., Delaney, J.R. 1996. Marine pollution in the Arafura and Timor Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32(4):327-334.

Nagelkerken, I.,Wiltjer, G.A.M.T., Debrot, A.O., Pors, L.P.J.J. 2001. Baseline study of submerged marine debris at beaches in Curacao, West Indies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(9):786-789.

Redford, D.P. 1990. Status of the US Environmental Protection Agency Marine Debris Activities and Programs. pp. 947-955. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris.April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Redford, D.P., Trulli, W.R., Trulli, H.K. 1992. Composition of floating debris in the harbors of the United States. Chemistry and Ecology 7:75-92.

Ribic, C.A., Johnson, S.W., Cole, C.A. 1997. Distribution, type, accumulation, and source of marine debris in the US 1989-1993. pp. 35-47. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

Ross, J.B., Parker, R., Strickland, M. 1991. A survey of shoreline litter in Halifax Harbour 1989. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:245-248.

Ryan, P.G., Moloney, C.L. 1993. Marine litter keeps increasing. Nature 361:23.

Shomura R.S., Godfrey, M.L. (eds). 1990. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, April 2-7, 1989. Honolulu, Hawaii. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-154. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Services, Washington, DC, 1274 pp.

Shomura, R.S., Yoshida, H.O. (eds). 1985. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, November 27-29, 1984. Honolulu, Hawaii. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Services, Washington, DC, 580 pp.

Silva-Iniguez, L., Fischer, D.W. 2003. Quantification and classification of marine litter on the municipal beach of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(1):132-138.

Stefatos, A., Charalampakis, M., Papatheodorou, G., Ferentinos, G. 1999. Marine debris on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea: examples from two enclosed gulfs in western Greece. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(5):389-393.

Thiel, M., Hinojosa, I., Vasquez, N., Macaya, E. 2003. Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile). Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(2):224-231.

Trulli, W.R., Trulli H.K., Redford, D.P. 1990. Characterization of marine debris in selected harbors of the United States. pp. 309-324. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

United Nations Environment Program, Global Programme of Action Coordination Office; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; and United Nations International Maritime Organization. “Marine Litter—What & Where?” <http://marinelitter.gpa.unep.org/facts/what-where.htm> (Accessed November 2, 2003).

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. Preliminary Report: Part V, Clear Waters Ahead: Coastal and Ocean Policy. pp. 155-217.

US EPA. 1992a. The study of floatable debris in U.S. Waters (Harbors Studies Program), March 1989 through April 1991. EPA 842-R-92-001. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. 242 pp. + appendices. (In press)

US EPA. 2002. The Definition, Characterization and Sources of Marine Debris. Unit 1 of Turning the Tide on Trash, a Learning Guide on Marine Debris. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

US EPA. 1992b. Pilot study to characterize floatable debris discharged from combined sewer overflows and storm drains. Report being prepared by Batelle Ocean Sciences under Contract No. 68-C8-0105 to the Environmental Protection Agency Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, Washington DC. (In preparation)

Vauk, G.J.M, Schrey, E. Garbage pollution in the German Bight (Abstract). Inselstation Helgoland Des Instituts Fur Vogelforschung, Helgoland, Germany.

Velander, K.A., Mocogni, M. 1998. Maritime litter and sewage contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh – a comparative study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36(5):385-389.

Walker, T.R., Reid, K., Arnould, J.P.Y., Croxall, J.P. 1997. Marine debris surveys at Bird Island, South Georgia 1990-1995. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34:61-65.

Williams, A.T., Tudor, D.T. 2001. Litter burial and exhumation: spatial and temporal distribution on a Cobble Pocket Beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(11):1031-1039.

Willoughby, N.G. 1986. Man-made litter on the shores of the Thousand Island Archipelago, Java. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17:224-228.

Willoughby, N.G., Sangkoyo, H., Lakaseru, B.O. 1997. Beach litter: an increasing and changing problem for Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34:469-478.

Whiting, S.D. 1998. Types and sources of marine debris in Fog Bay, Northern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36(11):904-910.

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Marine Debris (impacts on wildlife)

Ainley, D.G., Spear, L.B. Ribic, C.A. 1990. The incidence of plastic in the diets of pelagic seabirds in the eastern equatorial Pacific region. pp. 653-664. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Ananthaswamy, A. 2001. Junk food. New Scientist.

Arnould, J.P.Y., Croxall, J.P. 1995. Trends in entanglement of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazelle) in man-made debris at South Georgia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30(11):707-712.

Auman, H.J., Ludwig, J.P., Giesy, J.P., Colborn, T. 1997. Plastic Ingestion by Laysan Albatross Chicks on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, in 1994 and 1995. pp. 239-244. In: G. Robinson, R. Gale, (eds.), Albatross Biology and Conservation.

Auman, H.J. 1994. Plastic ingestion, biomarkers of health, PCBs and DDE in two species of albatrosses on Sand Island, Midway Atoll. Thesis Submitted to Michigan State University.

Azzarello, M.Y., Van Vleet, F.S. 1987. Marine birds and plastic pellets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 37(2-3):295-303.

Baird, R.W., Hooker, S.K. 2000. Ingestion of plastic and unusual prey by a juvenile harbour porpoise. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(8):719-720.

Baltz, D.M., Morejohn, G.V. 1976. Evidence from seabirds of plastic particle pollution off Central California. West. Birds 7:111-112.

Balazs, G.H. 1985. Impact of ocean debris on marine turtles: entanglement and ingestion. pp. 387-429. In: R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris. November 27-29, 1984. Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54.

Barnes, D.K.A., Warren, N.L., Webb, K., Phalan, B., Reid, K. 2004. Polar pedunculate barnacles piggy-back on Pycnogona, penguins, pinniped seals and plastics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 284:305-310.

Barreiros, J.P., Barcelos, J. 2001. Plastic ingestion by a Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea from the Azores (NE Atlantic). Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(11):1196-1197.

Beck, C.A., Barros, N.B. 1991. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:508-510.

Bjorndal, K.A., Bolton, A.B., Lagueux, C.J. 1994. Ingestion of marine debris by juvenile sea turtles in coastal Florida habitats. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28:154-158.

Blanco, G. 1994. Seasonal abundance of black kites associated with the rubbish dump of Madrid, Spain. Journal of Raptor Research 28:242-245.

Blight, L.K., Burger, A.E., 1997. Occurrence of plastic particles in seabirds from the Eastern North Pacific. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(5):323–325.

Bourne, W.R.P., Imber, M.J. 1982. Plastic pellets collected by a prion on Gough Island, Central South Atlantic Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13(1):20-21.

Bugoni, L., Krause, L., Petry, M.V. 2001. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(12):1330-1334.

Cadee, G.C. 2002. Seabirds and floating plastic debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(11):1294-1295.

Carr, A. 1987. Impact of nondegradable marine debris on the ecology and survival outlook of sea turtles. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B):352-356.

Chiappone, M., White, A., Swanson, D.W., Miller, S.L. 2002. Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(7):597-604.

Connors, P.G., Smith, K.G. 1982. Oceanic plastic particle pollution: suspected effect on fat deposition in red phalaropes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13(1):18-20.

Day, R.H. 1980. The occurrence and characteristics of plastic pollution in Alaska’s marine birds. M.S. Thesis, University of Alaska. Fairbanks, AK. 111 pp.

Day, R.H., Wehle, D.H.S., Coleman, F.C. 1985. Ingestion of plastic pollutants by marine birds. pp. 344-386. In: R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris. November 27-29, 1984. Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54.

Donohue, M.J., Boland, R.C., Sramek, C.M., Antonelis, G.A. 2001. Derelict fishing gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(12):1301-1312.

Fowler, C.W. 1987. Marine debris and northern fur seals: a case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:326-335.

Fry D.M., Fefer, S.I. Sileo, L. 1987. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tail shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:339-343.

Furness, R.W. 1985. Plastic particle pollution: accumulation by procellariiform seabirds at Scottish Colonies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 16(3):103-106.

Gramentz, D. 1988. Involvement of loggerhead turtles with the plastic, metal, and hydrocarbon pollution in the central Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19(1):11-13.

Hanni, K.D., Pyle, P. 2000. Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials at south-east Farallon Island, California, 1976-1998. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(12):1076-1081.

Henderson, J.R. 2001. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(7):584-589.

Imber, M.J. 1996. The food of Cook's petrel Pterodroma cookii during its breeding season on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand. Emu 96:189-194.

Imber, M.J., Jolly, J.N., Brooke, M.D. 1995. Food of 3 sympatric gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp) breeding on the Pitcairn Islands. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56:233-240.

Kenyon, K.W., Kridler, E. 1969. Laysan albatrosses swallow indigestible matter. Auk 86:339-343.

Kinan, I.  Occurrence of plastic debris and ingestion by albatross at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 10 pp.

Laist, D.W. 1997. Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. pp. 99-140. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

Laist, D.W., Twiss Jr., J.R.  An overview of impacts associated with lost and discarded fishing gear, packaging material, and other persistent synthetic materials on living marine resources. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C.

Ludwig, J.P., Summer, C.L. The contaminant uptake in two species of albatrosses in the North Pacific Ocean. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC.

Minchin, D. 1996. Tar pellets and plastics as attachment surfaces for Lepadid cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32(12):855-859.

Moscrop, A., Simmonds, M.P. The significance of pollution for marine cetaceans. The Conservation Research Group University of Greenwich.

Ogi, H. 1990. Ingestion of plastic particles by sooty and short-tailed shearwaters in the North Pacific. pp. 635-652. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Pettit, T.N., Grant, G.S., Whittow, G.C. 1981. Ingestion of plastics by Laysan albatrosses. Auk 98(4):839-841.

Plotkin, P., Amos, A.F. 1988. Entanglement in and ingestion of marine debris by sea turtles stranded along the south Texas coast. pp. 79-82. In: B.A. Schroeder (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology. February 24-26, 1988, Fort Fisher, North Carolina. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SEFC-214.

Plotkin, P., Amos, A.F. 1990. Effects of anthropogenic debris on sea turtles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 736-742. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Robards, M.D. 1993. Plastic ingestion of North Pacific Seabirds. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA-43ABNF203014, Washington DC.

Robards, M.D., Platt, J.F., Wohl, K.D. 1995. Increasing frequency of plastic particle ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30(2):151-157.

Robards, M.D., Gould, P.J., Platt, J.F. 1997. The highest global concentrations and increased abundance of oceanic plastic debris in the North Pacific: Evidence from seabirds. pp. 71-80. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

Ryan, P.G. (in press). Intraspecific variation in plastic ingestion by seabirds and the flux of plastic through seabird populations. Condor.

Ryan, P.G. 1987a. The effects of ingested plastic on seabirds: correlations between plastic load and body condition. Environmental Pollution 46:119-125.

Ryan, P.G. 1987b. The incidence and characteristics of plastic particles ingested by seabirds. Marine Environmental Research 23:175-206.

Ryan, P.G., Jackson, S. 1987. The lifespan of ingested plastic particles in seabirds and their effect on digestive efficiency. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(5):217-219.

Ryan, P.G. 1988a. Effects of ingested plastic on seabird feeding: evidence from chickens. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19(3):125-128.

Ryan, P.G., Connell, A.D., Gardner, B.D. 1988. Plastic ingestion and PCBs in seabirds: is there a relationship? Marine Pollution Bulletin 19(4):174-176.

Ryan, P.G. 1990. The effects of ingested plastic and other marine debris on seabirds. pp. 623-634. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Sazima, I., Gadig, O.B.F., Namora, R.C., Motta, F.S. 2002. Plastic debris collars on juvenile carcharhinid sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) in southwest Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(10):1149-1151.

Schrey, E., Vauk, G.J. Records of entangled gannets (Sula bassana) at Helgoland, German Bight. Inselstation Helgoland Des Instituts Fur Vogelforschung, Helgoland, Germany .

Sievert, P.R., Sileo, L. 1992. The effects of ingested plastics on growth and survival of albatross chicks. In: K. Vermeer and D. Siegel-Causey (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on the Status, Ecology and Conservation of Marine Birds of the Temperate North Pacific. Canadian Wildlife Service publication.

Sileo, L., Sievert, P.R., Samuel, M.D., Fefer, S.I. 1990. Prevalence and characteristics of plastic ingested by Hawaiian seabirds. pp. 665-682. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawa

ii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Simons, M. 1992. Dolphins wash ashore in Greece and Turkey. New York Times.

Spear, L.B., Ainley, D.G., Ribic, C.A. 1995. Incidence of plastic in seabirds from the tropical Pacific, 1984-91 - relation with distribution of species, sex, age, season, year and body-weight. Marine Environmental Research 40:123-146.

Stewart, B.S., Yochem, P.K. Entanglement of pinnepeds in plastic debris and fishing net fragments in the southern California Bight, 1978-1986. Hubbs Marine Research Institute, San Diego, CA.

Thompson, M.E., Cote, W.A. 1997. Potential effects of discarded Triton Paperboard six-pack carriers on fish and wildlife. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(2):135-137.

Tomas, J., Guitart, R., Mateo, R., Raga, J.A. 2002. Marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the western Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(3):211-216.

Van Franeker, J.A. 1985. Plastic ingestion by North Atlantic fulmar. Marine Pollution Bulletin 16(9): 367-369.

Van Franeker, J.A., Bell, P.J. 1988. Plastic ingestion by petrels breeding in Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19:672-674.

Walker, W.A., Coe, J.M. 1990. Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontcete cetaceans. pp. 747-774. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Wallace, N. 1985. Debris entanglement in the marine environment: a review. pp. 259-277. In: R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris. November 27-29, 1984. Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54.

Uneputty, P., Evans, S.M. 1997. The impact of plastic debris on the biota of tidal flats in Ambon Bay (eastern Indonesia). Marine Environmental Research 44:233-242.

Vlietstra, L.S., Parga, J.A. 2002. Long-term changes in the type, but not amount, of ingested plastic particles in short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:945-955.

Witherington, B.E. 2002. Ecology of neonate loggerhead turtles inhabiting lines of downwelling near a Gulf Stream front. Marine Biology 140:843-853.

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Ocean-Based Discharges (fishing gear and ship-board wastes)

National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pemberton, D., Broters, N.P., Kirkwood, R. 1992. Marine vessel debris - a North American perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24:586-592.

Wallace, B. 1990. Shipping industry marine debris education plan. pp. 1115-1122. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

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Plastic Additives (impacts on marine ecosystems)

Abd-Allah, A.M.A. 1999. Organochlorine contaminants in microlayer and subsurface water of Alexandria Coast. Egypt. J. AOAC Int. 82:391–398.

Andrady, A.L. 1990. Environmental degradation of plastics under land and marine exposure conditions. pp. 848-869. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Anikiyev, V.V., Urbanovich, M.Y. 1989. Organic pollutant distributions in the surface microlayer system in some world ocean regions. Geochem. Int. 26:116–122.

Atkinson, S., Atkinson, M.J., Tarrant, A.M. 2003. Estrogens from Sewage in Coastal Marine Environments. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(4):531–35.

Basheer, C. et al, 2004. Endocrine Disrupting Alkyl phenols and Bisphenol-A in Coastal Waters and Supermarket Seafood from Singapore. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48. 1145-1167.

Bidleman, T.F., Olney, C.E., 1974. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Sargasso Sea atmosphere and surface water. Science 183:516–518.

Burns, K.A., Villeneuve, J.P. 1987. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the open Mediterranean ecosystem and implications for mass balance calculations. Mar. Chem. 20:337–359.

Christiansen, L.B., Winther-Nielsen, M., Helweg, C. 2002. Feminisation of fish: The effect of estrogenic compounds and their fate in sewage treatment plant and nature. Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Ministry of the Environment. Environmental Project (Miljøprojekt) No. 729.

Cincinelli, A., Stortini, A.M., Perugini, M., Checchini, L., Lepri, L. 2001. Organic pollutants in sea-surface microlayer and aerosol in the coastal environment of Leghorn (Tyrrhenian Sea). Mar. Chem. 76:77–98.

Colborn, T., Thayer, K. 2000. Aquatic ecosystems: harbingers of endocrine disruption. Ecological Applications 104:949-957.

De Metrio, G. et al, 2003. Evidence of a high percentage of intersex in the Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 358-361.

Gaul, H., Ziebarth, U. 1980. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in seawater of the western Baltic. Investigation methods and results of 1976 and 1978. Dt. Hydrogr. Z. 33:199–209.

Giam, C.S., Chan, H.S., Neff, G.S., Atlas, E.L. 1978. Phthalate ester plasticizers: a new class of marine pollutant. Science 199:419-421.

Harries, J.E., et al. 1996. A Survey of Estrogenic Activity in United Kingdom Inland Waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15:1993-2002.

Hewitt, M., Servos, M. 2001. An overview of substances present in Canadian aquatic environments associated with endocrine disruption. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 36:191-213.

Hosokawa, Y., Yasui, M., Yoshikawa, K., Tanaka, Y., Suzuki, M. 2003. The nationwide investigation of endocrine disruptors in sediment of harbours. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47:132-138.

Johnson, A. et al, 2003. Endocrine Active Industrial Chemicals: Release and Occurrence in the Environment. Pure Appl. Chem. 75: (Nos. 11-12) 1895-1904.

Ike, M., Jin, C.S., Fugita, M. 2000. Biodegradation of bisphenol A in the aquatic environment. Water Science & Technology 42(7-8):31-38.

Kle?ka, G.M., Gonsior, S.J., West, R.J., Goodwin, P.A., Markham, D.A. 2001. Biodegradation of bisphenol A in aquatic environments: River die-away. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 20:2725-2735.

Kolpin, D.W., et al. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology 36:1202-1211.

Krishnan, A.V., Starhis, P., Permuth, S.F., Tokes, L., Feldman, D. 1993. Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving. Endocrinology 132(16):2279–2286.

Levy, G., Lutz, I., Krüger, A., and Kloas, W. (2004): Bisphenol A induces feminization in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Environ. Res. 94, 102-111.

Mackintosh, C.E., et al. 2004. Distribution of phthalate esters in a marine aquatic food web: comparison to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental Science & Technology 38:2011-2020.

Oehlmann, J., Schulte-Oehlmann, U., Bachmann, J., Oetken, M., Lutz, I., Kloas, W., Ternes, T.A.: Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at low concentrations. Environmental Health Perspectives, in press.

Sajiki, J., Yonekubo, J. 2003. Leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) to seawater from polycarbonate plastic and its degradation by reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere 51:55-62.

Scholz, N., Diefenbach, R., Rademacher, I., Linnemann, D. 1997. Biodegradation of DEHP, DBP, and DINP: poorly water soluble and widely used phthalate plasticizers. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58:527-534.

Stadler, D.F., Ziebarth, U. 1976. p,p’-DDT dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surface water of the western Baltic, 1974. Dt. Hydrogr. Z. 29:25–31.

Staples, C.A., Dom, P.B., Klecka, G.M., O’Block, S.T., Harris, L.R. 1998. A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 36(10):2149– 2173.

Staples, C.A., Woodburn, K., Caspers, N., Hall, A.T., Kle?ka, G.M. 2002. A weight of evidence approach to the aquatic hazard assessment of bisphenol A. Human & Ecological Risk Assessment 8:1083-1105.

Sumpter, J.P., Jobling, S. 1995. Vitellogenesis as a biomarker for estrogenic contamination of the aquatic environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:173-178.

Suzuki, T., Nakagawa, Y., Takano, I., Yaguchi, K., Yasuda, K. 2004. Environmental fate of bisphenol A and its biological metabolites in river water and their xeno-estrogenic activity. Environmental Science & Technology 38:2389-2396.

Yamamoto, T., Yasuhara, A. 1998. Quantities of bisphenol A leached from plastic waste samples. Chemosphere 38(11):2569–2576.

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Plastic Debris (general information, quantity, distribution)

Carpenter, E.J., Smith Jr., K.L. 1972. Plastics on the Sargasso Sea surface. Science 175:1240-1241.

Carpenter, E. J., et al. 1972. Polystyrene spherules in coastal waters. Science 178:749-750.

Center for Marine Conservation. 1988. A Citizen’s Guide to Plastics in the Ocean: More Than a Litter Problem. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-9615294-2-3. Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, DC pp. 143.

Colton, J.B. 1974. Plastics in the ocean. Oceanus 18(1):61-64.

Colton, J.B., Knapp Jr., F.D., Burns, B.R. 1974. Plastic particles in surface waters of the northwestern Atlantic. Science 185(4150):491–497.

Day, R.H., Shaw, D.G. 1987. Patterns in the abundance of pelagic plastic and tar in the North Pacific Ocean, 1976-1985. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:311-316.

Day, R.H. 1988. Quantitative distribution and characteristics of neustonic plastic in the North Pacific Ocean. Final Report to US Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Services, Auke Bay Laboratory. Auke Bay, AK, pp. 73.

Day, R.H., Clausen, D.M., Ignell, S.E. 1986. Distribution and Density of Plastic Particulates in the North Pacific Ocean in 1986. Submitted to the International North Pacific Fisheries Commission, Anchorage, Alaska, November 1986. pp. 17 Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Auke Bay Laboratory. P.O. Box 210155, Auke Bay, AK 99821.

Day, R.H., Shaw, D.G., Ignell, S.E. 1990. The quantitative distribution and characteristics of neustonic plastic in the North Pacific Ocean, 1984-1988. pp. 247-266. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Derraik, J.G.B. 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(9):842-852.

Goldberg, E.D. 1997. Plasticizing the seafloor: An overview. Environmental Technology 18:195-201.

Gregory, M.R. 1977. Plastic pellets on New Zealand beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin 8:82-84.

Gregory, M.R. 1978. Accumulation and distribution of virgin plastic granules on New Zealand beaches. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 12(4):399-414.

Gregory, M.R. 1983. Virgin plastic granules on some beaches of eastern Canada and Bermuda. Marine Environmental Research 10:73-92.

Gregory, M.R. 1991. The hazards of persistent marine pollution: Drift plastics and conservation islands. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21:83-100.

Gregory, M.R. 1996. Plastic 'scrubbers' in hand cleansers: a further (and minor) source for marine pollution identified. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32:867-871.

Gregory, M.R. 1999. Plastics and South Pacific island shores: environmental implications. Ocean and Coastal Management 42(6-7):603-615.

Hays, H., Cormons, G. 1974. Plastic particles found in tern pellets, on coastal beaches, and at factory sites. Marine Pollution Bulletin 5(3):44-46.

Heneman, B. 1990. Overview: Marine debris in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. pp. 50-54. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris. April 2-7, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. US Dep. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154.

Kartar, S., Milne, R.A., Sainsury, M. 1973. Polystyrene waste in the seven Estuaries United Kingdom. Marine Pollution Bulletin 4:144.

Khordagui, H.K., Abu-Hilal, A.H. 1994. Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and western beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Environmental Pollution 84(3):325-327.

Laist, D.W. 1987. Overview of the biological effect of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B):319-326.

Lattin, G.L., Moore, C.J., Zellers, A.F., Moore, S.L., Weisberg, S.B. 2004. A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton at 3 different depths near the southern California shore. Marine Pollution Bulletin

Lecke. K.M., Keith, M. 1992. Distribution and abundance of large floating plastic in the North Central Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24:598-601.

Lentz, S.A. 1987. Plastics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:361-365.

McDermid, K.J., McMullen, T.L. 2004. Quantitative analysis of small plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian archipelago. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:790-794.

Moore, C. “Great Pacific Garbage Patch:” Plastic turning vast area of ocean into ecological nightmare. Santa Barbara News-Press;Voices, Oct 27, 2001, 1 pp.

Moore, C.J., Moore, S.L., Leecaster, M.K., Weisberg, S.B. 2001. A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific central gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1297-1300.

Moore, C.J., Moore, S.L., Weisberg, S.B., Lattin, G., Zellers, A. 2002. A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California’s coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(10):1035-1038.

Morris, R.J. 1980. Plastic debris in the surface waters of the south Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 11:164-166.

Nigam, R. 1982. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem Beach sands, Goa. India, Mahasagar 15(2):125-127.

Ogi, H., Baba, N., Ishihara, S., Shibata, Y. 1999. Sampling of plastic pellets by two types of neuston net and plastic pollution in the sea. Bulletin of Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University 50(2):77–91.

Ogi, H., Fukumoto, Y. 2000. A sorting method for small plastic debris floating on the sea surface and stranded on sandy beaches. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University 51(2):71-93.

Pruter, A.T. 1987. Sources, quantities, and distribution of persistent plastics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B):305-310.

Redford, D.P., Trulli, H., Trulli, W. 1997. Sources of plastic pellets in the aquatic environment. pp.335-343. In: J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers (eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY.

Ryan, P.G. 1988b. The characteristics and distribution of plastic particles at the sea-surface off the southwestern Cape Province, South Africa. Marine Environmental Research 15:249-273.

Shaw, D.G., Mapes, G.A. 1979. Surface circulation and the distribution of pelagic tar and plastic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 10:160-162.

Shaw, D.G., Day, R.H. 1994. Colour and form dependent loss of plastic micro debris from the North Pacific Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28:39-43.

Shiber, J.G. 1979. Plastic pellets on the coast of Lebanon. Marine Pollution Bulletin 10:28-30.

Shiber, J.G. 1982. Plastic pellets on Spain’s ‘Costa del Sol’ beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13:409-412.

Shiber, J.G. 1987. Plastic pellets and tar on Spain’s Mediterranean beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(2):84-86.

Srinivasa Reddy, M., Basha, S., Adimurthy, S., Ramachandraiah, G. 2005. Ships for Scrap at Alang-Sosiya: Looming of Small Plastics in Marine Sediments. Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavnagar 364 002, Gujarat, India.

Thompson, R.C., et al. 2004. Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic? Science 304: 838. <www.sciencemag.org>

US EPA. 1992c. Plastic pellets in the aquatic environment: sources and recommendations. Oceans and Coastal Protection Division Final Report 842-B-92-010. Washington DC.

van Dolah, R.F., Burrell Jr., V.G., West, S.B. 1980. The distribution of pelagic tar and plastics in the South Atlantic Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin 11(12):352-356.

Wehle, D.H.S., Coleman, F.C. 1983. Plastics at sea. Natural History 92(2):20-26.

Wilber, R.J. 1987. Plastics in the North Atlantic. Oceanus 30(3):61-68.

Wong, C.S., Green, D.R., Cretney, W.J. 1974. Quantitative tar and plastic waste distributions in the Pacific Ocean. Nature 246:30-32.

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Plastic Debris (as transport mechanism for pollutants)

Mato, Y., et al. 2001. Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environmental Science & Technology 35:318-324.

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Trash and Debris Monitoring Methods

California Regional Water Quality Control Board. 2004. Rapid Trash Assessment Protocol, Version 8. San Francisco Bay Region. 7 pp.

Fan, Z. 1997. The monitoring methods of the drifting debris in the marine environment. Marine Environmental Science 16(2):42-45.

Rees, G., Pond, K. 1995. Marine litter monitoring programmes – A review of methods with special reference to national surveys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30(2):103-108.

Ribic, C.A., Ganio, L.M. 1996. Power analysis for beach surveys of marine debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32(7):554-557.

Ribic, C.A. 1998. Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36(11):887-891.

Syrek, D.B., Kayhanian, M., Meyer, S. 2003. A regression model to predict litter in urban freeway outfalls after rainstorms. Presented at StormCon, Austin, TX, July 2003.

US EPA. 2001. Draft Assessing and Monitoring Floatable Debris. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

Velander, K., Mocogni, M. 1999. Beach litter sampling strategies: Is there a ‘best’ method? Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(12):1134-1140.

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Compiled with the assistance of Algalita volunteer, Leslie Ramirez

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